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From the greatest of distinctions between the true followers of the Messengers and Prophets (in beliefs and methodologies) and those besides them is their affirmation of whatever Allaah affirmed for Himself and which His Messenger (alayhis salaam) affirmed for him in the revealed texts, of Names, Attributes and Actions.
From the greatest of these is Allaah's Uluww (above the heaven, above the Throne, with His Essence). This is a matter that all revealed books and all sent messengers were agreed upon, until the appearance of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah. On the basis of an intellectual proof they devised - based upon the language, terminology and classification of the atheist philosophers - to prove the universe is created, they denied much of what has come in the Book and the Sunnah pertaining to Allaah's Names, Attributes and Actions, in order to avoid invalidating their rational proof.
These people were opposed by the entirety of the Salaf, and in the third century, a faction of the Ahl al-Kalaam called the Kullaabiyyah, named after Abdullaah bin Sa'eed bin Kullaab (d. 240H), opposed the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah by being the first of the Mutakallimeen to affirm something of Allaah's Attributes. They refuted the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on the issue of Allaah's Uluww and in the rejection of the Sifaat Dhaatiyyah. However, uable to counter the arguments of the Mu'tazilah, they denied the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will) and through this rejection, concurred with the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the Qur'an present with us is created, whilst affirming something additional that the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah did not affirm, which is that there is another uncreated Qur'an, the meaning present with Allaah's Self form eternity which they called "kalaam nafsee". These doctrines of the Kullaabiyyah were taken on by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324H) after his split with the Mu'tazilah and they became popularized through the label of "Ash'ariyyah". The essence of the Kullaabi (then Ash'arite) creed was to negate "events (hawaadith)" from Allaah, since to them, everything in the universe is but an event. The early Ash'aris remained upon the creed of the Kullabiyyah in the bulk, affirming Allaah's Uluww and the sifaat dhaatiyyah (such as Face, Hands, Eyes) however, the later Ash'aris reverted back to the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on these specific issues, and adopted the very ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the early Kullaabi Ash'aris refuted. Thus, unlike the early Kullaabi Ash'aris, they denied Allaah is above the Throne, with His Essence and instead adopted the saying of the Jahmiyyah, Mut'azilah and Kafirs like Ibn Sinah (d. 429H) - see here.
These very Ash'ari, Maturidi, Mu'tazili figureheads were the same people responsible for the birth and growth of the destructive political movements of the 20th century, and whereas in previous centuries, those assuming the label of "Ash'aris" had departed from his creed and corrupted the beliefs of the Muslims with their hybrid Jahmee, Mu'tazilee, Kullaabi, Ash'ari creed, in the twentieth century, this same line of
The aqidah of the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah and Ash'ariyyah is that the Qur'an is Created and Moses Did Not Hear the speech of Allaah
Sayyid Qutb said in az-Zilaal (2/804):
كلهم تلقى الوحي من اللّه. فما جاء بشيء من عنده. وإذا كان اللّه قد كلم موسى تكليما فهو لون من الوحي لا يعرف أحد كيف كان يتم. لأن القرآن - وهو المصدر الوحيد الصحيح الذي لا يرقى الشك إلى صحته - لم يفصل لنا في ذلك شيئا. فلا نعلم إلا أنه كان كلاما. ولكن ما طبيعته؟ كيف تم؟ بأية حاسة أو قوة كان موسى يتلقاه؟ ... كل ذلك غيب من الغيب لم يحدثنا عنه القرآن. وليس وراء القرآن - في هذا الباب - إلا أساطير لا تستند إلى برهان.
This is one of many places in which Qutb propounds and invites to the Jahmee, Mu'tazili creed of the Qur'an being created and that Moses did not hear the speech of Allaah. We shall bring the other statements (which are numerous) in other articles, all of which collectively show that this was an aqidah he was upon and calling to, and not just an ignorant remark.
In the above quote Qutb says:
All of them (i.e. Prophets) acquired revelation from Allaah. He did not bring anything from himself. And when Allaah had spoken to Moses with speech, then it is a type of revelation that no one knows as to how it took place and completed. Because the Qur'an - and that is single authentic source to whose authenticity no doubt can approach - did not explain to us anything about that. So we do not know except that it was speech. But what was its nature? How did it occur? With what sense, or faculty did Moses acquire it? All of that is unseen, from the unseen which the Qur'an has not informed us about, and beyond the Qur'an - in this particular subject - there is nothing except tales of the ancients, which are not based upon proof.
There are a number of issues in this statement:
Point 1: Casting Doubt Upon the Sunnah
The saying of Qutb:
Because the Qur'an - and that is single authentic source to whose authenticity no doubt can approach...
Is a meaning that he mentions elsewhere in az-Zilaal, and he means by this to cast doubt upon the Sunnah, and we have covered elsewhere that he propounds the Mu'tazili, Ash'ari doctrine of rejecting aahaad hadeeth in matters of creed. And he emphasizes this again in the same quote above, at the end by saying:
...and beyond the Qur'an - in this particular subject - there is nothing except tales of the ancients, which are not based upon proof...
There are other parts in az-Zilaal where this misguidance is repeated and we will document that inshaa'Allaah in other articles.
Point 2: Denying Moses Heard the Speech of Allah with the Faculty of Hearing
Alongside the many references to the Qur'an being created, in very explicit language, in this passage, Qutb denies that Moses heard the speech of Allaah, with the faculty of hearing, as is the creed of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah who are opposed in this by the Innovating Strayers. Qutb says:
How did it occur? With what sense, or faculty did Moses acquire it? All of that is unseen, from the unseen...
This is yet another example of Qutb's call to the Jahmite Ash'ari aqidah in his az-Zilaal and he did not content himself with just speaking about the eloquent expression and literary beauty of the Qur'an but he went out of his way to repeat certain explanations and themes (pertaining to the doctrines of the Jahmites), over and over again, indicating that he is a caller to this falsehood.
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