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From the greatest of distinctions between the true followers of the Messengers and Prophets (in beliefs and methodologies) and those besides them is their affirmation of whatever Allaah affirmed for Himself and which His Messenger (alayhis salaam) affirmed for him in the revealed texts, of Names, Attributes and Actions.
From the greatest of these is Allaah's Uluww (above the heaven, above the Throne, with His Essence). This is a matter that all revealed books and all sent messengers were agreed upon, until the appearance of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah. On the basis of an intellectual proof they devised - based upon the language, terminology and classification of the atheist philosophers - to prove the universe is created, they denied much of what has come in the Book and the Sunnah pertaining to Allaah's Names, Attributes and Actions, in order to avoid invalidating their rational proof.
These people were opposed by the entirety of the Salaf, and in the third century, a faction of the Ahl al-Kalaam called the Kullaabiyyah, named after Abdullaah bin Sa'eed bin Kullaab (d. 240H), opposed the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah by being the first of the Mutakallimeen to affirm something of Allaah's Attributes. They refuted the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on the issue of Allaah's Uluww and in the rejection of the Sifaat Dhaatiyyah. However, uable to counter the arguments of the Mu'tazilah, they denied the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will) and through this rejection, concurred with the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the Qur'an present with us is created, whilst affirming something additional that the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah did not affirm, which is that there is another uncreated Qur'an, the meaning present with Allaah's Self form eternity which they called "kalaam nafsee". These doctrines of the Kullaabiyyah were taken on by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324H) after his split with the Mu'tazilah and they became popularized through the label of "Ash'ariyyah". The essence of the Kullaabi (then Ash'arite) creed was to negate "events (hawaadith)" from Allaah, since to them, everything in the universe is but an event. The early Ash'aris remained upon the creed of the Kullabiyyah in the bulk, affirming Allaah's Uluww and the sifaat dhaatiyyah (such as Face, Hands, Eyes) however, the later Ash'aris reverted back to the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on these specific issues, and adopted the very ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the early Kullaabi Ash'aris refuted. Thus, unlike the early Kullaabi Ash'aris, they denied Allaah is above the Throne, with His Essence and instead adopted the saying of the Jahmiyyah, Mut'azilah and Kafirs like Ibn Sinah (d. 429H) - see here.
These very Ash'ari, Maturidi, Mu'tazili figureheads were the same people responsible for the birth and growth of the destructive political movements of the 20th century, and whereas in previous centuries, those assuming the label of "Ash'aris" had departed from his creed and corrupted the beliefs of the Muslims with their hybrid Jahmee, Mu'tazilee, Kullaabi, Ash'ari creed, in the twentieth century, this same line of
The aqidah of the Ash'ariyyah Jahmiyyah in Qutb's Commentary on the Qur'an - Ta'weel of al-Arsh (The Throne)
قُلْ : مَنْ رَبُّ السَّماواتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ
Say: Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Mighty Throne? (al-Mu'minoon 23:86)
... the following:
والعرش رمز للاستعلاء والهيمنة على الوجود
And the Throne is symbolic allusion to loftiness (in status, rank), and domination, control over the existence.
ذُو الْعَرْشِ الْمَجِيدُ. فَعَّالٌ لِما يُرِيدُ
Possessor of the Glorious Throne, the Doer of whatever He wills. (al-Buruj 85:15)
... the following
وهي صفات تصور الهيمنة المطلقة ، والقدرة المطلقة ، والإرادة المطلقة
And these are attributes that portray absolute domination, control (al-haymanah), absolute power and absolute will.
وَيَحْمِلُ عَرْشَ رَبِّكَ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ ثَمانِيَةٌ
And on that Day, eight (of the Angels) will carry the Throne of your Lord. (al-Haaqqah 69:17)
... the following:
كما لا ندري نحن ما العرش؟ ولا كيف يحمل
Just like we do not know what al-Arsh is? And nor how it is carried...
ثُمَّ اسْتَوى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ
Then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). (As-Sajdah 32:4)
والاستواء على العرش رمز لاستعلائه على الخلق كله. أما العرش ذاته فلا سبيل إلى قول شيء عنه ، ولا بد من الوقوف عند لفظه. وليس كذلك الاستواء. فظاهر أنه كناية عن الاستعلاء. ولفظ .. ثم ، لا يمكن قطعا أن يكون للترتيب الزمني ، لأن اللّه سبحانه - لا تتغير عليه الأحوال. ولا يكون في حال أو وضع - سبحانه - ثم يكون في حال أو وضع تال. إنما هو الترتيب المعنوي. فالاستعلاء درجة فوق الخلق ، يعبر عنها هذا التعبير.
And al-Istiwaa upon al-Arsh is symbolic allusion for His loftiness (in status, rank) over all the creation. As for al-Arsh itself then we have no way of saying anything about it, and it is necessary to halt at its wording. Bu al-Istiwaa is not like that. For what is apparent is that it is an allusion to loftiness (in status, rank) and the word "thumma" (meaning, "then") it is not possible, absolutely, that it is for succession in time, because conditions do not change for Allaah, the Sublime, and He is not in any "state" or "position", the Sublime, and then be in a successive "state" or "position". Rather, it (the particle "thumma") represents only an conceptual succession. Thus, al-Isti'laa (loftiness in rank, status) is a degree that is over that of creation, which is conveyed by this expression (in this verse).
From all of the above, a number of points follow:
In the above quotes is a denial of the reality of the Throne as it is affirmed by the Salaf, and it is a denial based upon the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah of negation of al-Uluww from Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted. And this is a recurring theme in az-Zilal, as we have covered in previous articles:
Point 2: Negation of "al-Hawaadith" for Allaah Upon the way of the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Kullaabiyyah, Ash'ariyyah
And this is something that Qutb has stated repeatedly, particularly in the verses pertaining to al-Istiwaa. The negation of al-hawaadith (events, occurrences) - [what is intended by this are Allaah's actions that are tied to His Will and Power] - is based upon the intellectual proof that all of these groups adopted in trying to argue against the Atheists. As a result of that they were forced to distort the meanings of the verses of the Qur'an to avoid invalidating their own proof. And thus, their language in describing Allaah had to remain as that of the underlying language and terminology of the intellectual proof they were using (based on Aristotle's Ten Categories), such as jism, jawhar, 'arad, Makaan, hayyiz, jihah and so on.
Point 3: Negation of al-Uluww
And in Qutb's claim that the meaning of al-Istiwaa (ascending) is al-isti'laa, which means ascendancy, aboveness in terms of rank and status, not an aboveness with one's essence (dhaat). And this is also from the deen of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah and the later Ash'arites who abandoned the Kullabi creed of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari.
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