Sayyid Qutb and the Aqidah of the Ash'ariyyah Jahmiyyah: Part 11 - Allaah Speaking to Moses and Allaah's Eternal Kalaam |
Sunday, January 03 2010 - by Admin
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From the greatest of distinctions between the true followers of the Messengers and Prophets (in beliefs and methodologies) and those besides them is their affirmation of whatever Allaah affirmed for Himself and which His Messenger (alayhis salaam) affirmed for him in the revealed texts, of Names, Attributes and Actions.
From the greatest of these is Allaah's Uluww (above the heaven, above the Throne, with His Essence). This is a matter that all revealed books and all sent messengers were agreed upon, until the appearance of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah. On the basis of an intellectual proof they devised - based upon the language, terminology and classification of the atheist philosophers - to prove the universe is created, they denied much of what has come in the Book and the Sunnah pertaining to Allaah's Names, Attributes and Actions, in order to avoid invalidating their rational proof.
These people were opposed by the entirety of the Salaf, and in the third century, a faction of the Ahl al-Kalaam called the Kullaabiyyah, named after Abdullaah bin Sa'eed bin Kullaab (d. 240H), opposed the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah by being the first of the Mutakallimeen to affirm something of Allaah's Attributes. They refuted the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on the issue of Allaah's Uluww and in the rejection of the Sifaat Dhaatiyyah. However, uable to counter the arguments of the Mu'tazilah, they denied the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will) and through this rejection, concurred with the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the Qur'an present with us is created, whilst affirming something additional that the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah did not affirm, which is that there is another uncreated Qur'an, the meaning present with Allaah's Self form eternity which they called "kalaam nafsee". These doctrines of the Kullaabiyyah were taken on by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324H) after his split with the Mu'tazilah and they became popularized through the label of "Ash'ariyyah". The essence of the Kullaabi (then Ash'arite) creed was to negate "events (hawaadith)" from Allaah, since to them, everything in the universe is but an event. The early Ash'aris remained upon the creed of the Kullabiyyah in the bulk, affirming Allaah's Uluww and the sifaat dhaatiyyah (such as Face, Hands, Eyes) however, the later Ash'aris reverted back to the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on these specific issues, and adopted the very ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the early Kullaabi Ash'aris refuted. Thus, unlike the early Kullaabi Ash'aris, they denied Allaah is above the Throne, with His Essence and instead adopted the saying of the Jahmiyyah, Mut'azilah and Kafirs like Ibn Sinah (d. 429H) - see here.
These very Ash'ari, Maturidi, Mu'tazili figureheads were the same people responsible for the birth and growth of the destructive political movements of the 20th century, and whereas in previous centuries, those assuming the label of "Ash'aris" had departed from his creed and corrupted the beliefs of the Muslims with their hybrid Jahmee, Mu'tazilee, Kullaabi, Ash'ari creed, in the twentieth century, this same line of
Sayyid Qutb, Allaah Calling Out to Moses and the Kalaam Azalee
Sayyid Qutb said in az-Zilal (4/2313) regarding the saying of Allaah ( وَنادَيْناهُ مِنْ جانِبِ الطُّورِ الْأَيْمَنِ), in which Allaah says He called out to Moses:
ونحن لا ندري كيف كان هذا الكلام ، وكيف أدركه موسى .. أكان صوتا تسمعه الأذن أم يتلقاه الكيان الإنساني كله. ولا نعلم كيف أعد اللّه كيان موسى البشري لتلقي كلام اللّه الأزلي .. إنما نؤمن أنه كان. وهو على اللّه هين أن يصل مخلوقه به بطريقة من الطرق
And we do not know how this speech was, and how Moses perceived it ... was it a voice which the ears hear, or did the entire human being (essence) acquire (receive) it. And we do not know how Allaah prepared the human essence of Moses to receive the eternal kalaam of Allaah. We believe that it took place, and it is easy upon Allaah for Him to connect with His creation through it through a particular way amongst the ways.
And in another place (az-Zilal 4/2331) Qutb says:
فما يمكن تحديد مصدر النداء ولا اتجاهه . ولا تعيين صورته ولا كيفيته . ولا كيف سمعه موسى أو تلقاه
So it is not possible to define the source of this calling, and nor its direction, and nor to specify its form or its quiddity (how it is), and nor how Moses heard it or acquired it...
There are a number of points on this:
Point 1: Negation that Allaah Speaks with a Voice
It is established through the clear texts of the Qur'an and clear ahaadeeth that Allaah speaks with a voice that is heard, and His voice is like all the rest of the attributes, they are affirmed with the negation of likeness and resemblance to those of the creation. In this text, Qutb has rendered this to be from the knowledge of the unseen and this is in opposition to what the Salaf were upon. Rather the Salaf affirm that Allaah spoke to Moses directly and Moses heard Allaah's speech through his hearing, and this is opposed and denied by the Ash'ariyyah, Mu'tazilah and Jahmiyyah.
Point 2: The Kalaam Azalee (Eternal Speech)
We have covered in numerous previous articles that Qutb is upon the aqidah of the Ash'ariyyah and Jahmiyyah of negating hawaadith (events, occurrences) from Allaah, and this is manifest in his speech on al-Istiwaa (see here, here and here). Maintaining this principle, in this quote, Qutb mentions:
And we do not know how Allaah prepared the human essence of Moses to receive the eternal kalaam of Allaah (كلام اللّه الأزلي)...
And this is in accordance with Kullaabi Ash'ari doctrine of "kalaam nafsee" (eternal speech of Allaah present as a meaning with His self), which they innovated as a means to avoid affirming "hawaadith" for Allaah - in the face of the arguments of the Mu'tazilah against them. And Qutb has maintained that doctrine in this issue, as well as in the issue of al-Istiwaa as has been pointed out above.