Sayyid Qutb and the Aqidah of the Ash'ariyyah Jahmiyyah: Part 10 - The Qur'an is (Created) Like The Soul and Like The Rest of What Allaah Creates|
Saturday, January 02 2010 - by Admin
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From the greatest of distinctions between the true followers of the Messengers and Prophets (in beliefs and methodologies) and those besides them is their affirmation of whatever Allaah affirmed for Himself and which His Messenger (alayhis salaam) affirmed for him in the revealed texts, of Names, Attributes and Actions.
From the greatest of these is Allaah's Uluww (above the heaven, above the Throne, with His Essence). This is a matter that all revealed books and all sent messengers were agreed upon, until the appearance of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah. On the basis of an intellectual proof they devised - based upon the language, terminology and classification of the atheist philosophers - to prove the universe is created, they denied much of what has come in the Book and the Sunnah pertaining to Allaah's Names, Attributes and Actions, in order to avoid invalidating their rational proof.
These people were opposed by the entirety of the Salaf, and in the third century, a faction of the Ahl al-Kalaam called the Kullaabiyyah, named after Abdullaah bin Sa'eed bin Kullaab (d. 240H), opposed the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah by being the first of the Mutakallimeen to affirm something of Allaah's Attributes. They refuted the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on the issue of Allaah's Uluww and in the rejection of the Sifaat Dhaatiyyah. However, uable to counter the arguments of the Mu'tazilah, they denied the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will) and through this rejection, concurred with the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the Qur'an present with us is created, whilst affirming something additional that the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah did not affirm, which is that there is another uncreated Qur'an, the meaning present with Allaah's Self form eternity which they called "kalaam nafsee". These doctrines of the Kullaabiyyah were taken on by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324H) after his split with the Mu'tazilah and they became popularized through the label of "Ash'ariyyah". The essence of the Kullaabi (then Ash'arite) creed was to negate "events (hawaadith)" from Allaah, since to them, everything in the universe is but an event. The early Ash'aris remained upon the creed of the Kullabiyyah in the bulk, affirming Allaah's Uluww and the sifaat dhaatiyyah (such as Face, Hands, Eyes) however, the later Ash'aris reverted back to the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on these specific issues, and adopted the very ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the early Kullaabi Ash'aris refuted. Thus, unlike the early Kullaabi Ash'aris, they denied Allaah is above the Throne, with His Essence and instead adopted the saying of the Jahmiyyah, Mut'azilah and Kafirs like Ibn Sinah (d. 429H) - see here.
These very Ash'ari, Maturidi, Mu'tazili figureheads were the same people responsible for the birth and growth of the destructive political movements of the 20th century, and whereas in previous centuries, those assuming the label of "Ash'aris" had departed from his creed and corrupted the beliefs of the Muslims with their hybrid Jahmee, Mu'tazilee, Kullaabi, Ash'ari creed, in the twentieth century, this same line of
فهذا القرآن ليس ألفاظا وعبارات يحاول الإنس والجن أن يحاكوها. إنما هو كسائر ما يبدعه اللّه يعجز المخلوقون أن يصنعوه. هو كالروح من أمر اللّه لا يدرك الخلق سره الشامل الكامل ، وإن أدركوا بعض أوصافه وخصائصه وآثاره.
So this Qur'an is not [composed of such] words and expressions that men and jinn can try to imitate. Rather it is like all of what Allaah creates (yubdi'uhu), and which the creation is unable to manufacture (yasna'oohu). It is like the soul (rooh), [which is] from the command of Allaah, the creation do not know its entire, complete secret, even if they know some of its descriptions, unique characteristics and effects.
In this statement there are a number of points:
Point 1: The Qur'an is Created and Brought About
Here Qutb used two words in referring to the Qur'an and the creation, ibdaa' (لإبداع) and sun' (الصنع), meaning something created, brought about, manufactured. And this is not the only text, there are numerous other texts in which he repeats this aqidah, and we will document them separately inshaa'Allaah.
POint 2: The Qur'an is Like the Rooh (Soul)
To make it clear, Qutb likens the Qur'an to the soul (rooh), further emphasizing that he considers it a created entity - and this will be made very clear in other articles also. The fact that Qutb repeated this doctrine in numerous places in az-Zilal indicates that this not a slip or a mistake which occurred once, it is an aqidah he believes with conviction and through its repeated coverage it is something which he is inviting and calling the reader to.
And the consensus of the Salaf is that whoever states or believes that the Qur'an is created is a kaafir (disbeliever). And as the Scholars have said, what holds us back from making Takfir of Sayyid Qutb is the absence of iqaamat ul-hujjah (the establishment of the proof), and his affair is with Allaah, and this relates not just to his statements on the Qur'an but also his saying that Islaam is a mixture of Communism and Christianity