Sayyid Qutb and the Aqidah of the Ash'ariyyah Jahmiyyah: Part 5 - Allaah Does Not Occupy a Place (Makaan)|
Sunday, December 27 2009 - by Admin
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From the greatest of distinctions between the true followers of the Messengers and Prophets (in beliefs and methodologies) and those besides them is their affirmation of whatever Allaah affirmed for Himself and which His Messenger (alayhis salaam) affirmed for him in the revealed texts, of Names, Attributes and Actions.
From the greatest of these is Allaah's Uluww (above the heaven, above the Throne, with His Essence). This is a matter that all revealed books and all sent messengers were agreed upon, until the appearance of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah. On the basis of an intellectual proof they devised - based upon the language, terminology and classification of the atheist philosophers - to prove the universe is created, they denied much of what has come in the Book and the Sunnah pertaining to Allaah's Names, Attributes and Actions, in order to avoid invalidating their rational proof.
These people were opposed by the entirety of the Salaf, and in the third century, a faction of the Ahl al-Kalaam called the Kullaabiyyah, named after Abdullaah bin Sa'eed bin Kullaab (d. 240H), opposed the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah by being the first of the Mutakallimeen to affirm something of Allaah's Attributes. They refuted the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on the issue of Allaah's Uluww and in the rejection of the Sifaat Dhaatiyyah. However, uable to counter the arguments of the Mu'tazilah, they denied the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will) and through this rejection, concurred with the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the Qur'an present with us is created, whilst affirming something additional that the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah did not affirm, which is that there is another uncreated Qur'an, the meaning present with Allaah's Self form eternity which they called "kalaam nafsee". These doctrines of the Kullaabiyyah were taken on by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324H) after his split with the Mu'tazilah and they became popularized through the label of "Ash'ariyyah". The essence of the Kullaabi (then Ash'arite) creed was to negate "events (hawaadith)" from Allaah, since to them, everything in the universe is but an event. The early Ash'aris remained upon the creed of the Kullabiyyah in the bulk, affirming Allaah's Uluww and the sifaat dhaatiyyah (such as Face, Hands, Eyes) however, the later Ash'aris reverted back to the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah on these specific issues, and adopted the very ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the early Kullaabi Ash'aris refuted. Thus, unlike the early Kullaabi Ash'aris, they denied Allaah is above the Throne, with His Essence and instead adopted the saying of the Jahmiyyah, Mut'azilah and Kafirs like Ibn Sinah (d. 429H) - see here.
These very Ash'ari, Maturidi, Mu'tazili figureheads were the same people responsible for the birth and growth of the destructive political movements of the 20th century, and whereas in previous centuries, those assuming the label of "Ash'aris" had departed from his creed and corrupted the beliefs of the Muslims with their hybrid Jahmee, Mu'tazilee, Kullaabi, Ash'ari creed, in the twentieth century, this same line of
فيتوجه الفرد إلى قبلة حين يتوجه إلى اللّه بكليته. بقلبه وحواسه وجوارحه. فتتم الوحدة والاتساق بين كل قوى الإنسان في التوجه إلى اللّه الذي لا يتحيز في مكان وإن يكن الإنسان يتخذ له قبلة من مكان
So an individual faces the qiblah when he turns to Allaah completely (in all ways), with his heart, with his senses, with his limbs. Thus, the unity and harmony is completed between all the faculties of a person in turning towards Allaah, the one who does not occupy space (yatahayyaz) in a location (Makaan), even though the person takes a qiblah towards Him through a location.
This is one of the core foundations of the deen of the Mu'attilah, the Salaf's rejection of it was severe.
Refutation of the Deen of the Jahmiyyah of Negating Allaah's Uluww (Being Above the Creation)
The Shaykh, Abdullaah ad-Dawaish, may Allah reward him immensely, stated, in refuting this asl of the Jahmiyyah, in his book concerning the errors in az-Zilaal, "al-Moorid az-Zalaal" (pp. 19-20):
This is the saying of Ahl ul-Bid'ah such as the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah and Ash'ariyyah. As for Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah, then they do not describe Allaah except with what He described Himself and with what His Messenger described Him with. They do not go beyond the Qur'an and the Hadeeth, so they affirm the uluww of the Lord, Mighty and Majestic, and His istwaa over His Throne, just as He said, "And He is al-Aliyy al-Kabeer", and He also said, "And He made istiwaa over the Throne".
And he continues:
As for the people of innovation then they do not affirm what has been reported or they affirm some of the attributes as opposed to others, and they innovate ambiguous words by which one may think that they are purifying the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic from deficiencies and shortcomings. But their intent is to negate the attributes, [the words they use], such as al-jism, at-tahayyuz, al-jawhar, al-'arad.
There are a people who expend great efforts in refuting the As'hariyyah Jahmiyyah who speak with what Qutb has spoken with of expressing the negation of "Makaan" and "tahayyuz" and they show great earnest and zeal in refuting whatever these Ash'ariyyah Jahmiyyah bring with respect to this belief, scorning this belief, despising it, declaring it's intended meaning as kufr, mocking those who speak with it, feeling proud of having refuted them and repelled and considering all of this as jihaad in the path of Allaah. However, the sincerity of these actions are put to trial when it comes to Qutb's Zilaal considering that it is spread the world over, and read the world over, and used to nurture generations upon generations upon a particular way of thinking. If their refutations and efforts against the Ash'ariyyah Jahmiyyah are sincere, then we would see exactly the same towards the Jahmite doctrine that Qutb makes references in a manner that conveys that it is a standard, accepted truth, and which would certainly misguide people who read it, considering at the same time, that this book is published in the millions and is spread the world over.
As for the isolated opinion of one or two of the Scholars, and the attachment of the Qutbiyyah to them, then it is a sign of utmost desperation, and the opposer, if he stands in front of Allaah and passes his soul through a moment of honesty and sincerity, will have yaqeen regarding that.